Google Scholar Blueweiss, L. Observations from bald eagle nests in southeast Alaska: progress report — Juneau, Alaska, USA.
Google Scholar Keitt, T. Google Scholar Feder, J.
Google Scholar Frank, D. Photographs and 3D models of the six study species.Lawton, M. Google Scholar Pulliam, H. Compared to traditional methods, fractal dimensions performed at least as well at the interspecific level and considerably better at the intraspecific level over time. In a concrete sense, this means fractals cannot be measured in traditional ways. Units of measurement for fractal extent, applied to the coastal distribution of bald eagle nests in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Evolution of body size: conse-quences of an energetic definition of fitness. Support for anxious anti-mathematicians could come from our fractal dimension toolbox. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. The outputs of the modelling process may be highly artistic renderings, outputs for investigation, or benchmarks for fractal analysis. We compared the performance of fractal dimensions to traditional measures such as surface-volume ratios and rugosity. The 2d vector fields that are generated by one or two iterations of escape-time formulae also give rise to a fractal form when points or pixel data are passed through this field repeatedly. The ecological implications of body size. This number is what mathematicians call the fractal dimension of the Koch curve. A straight line, for instance, is self-similar but not fractal because it lacks detail, is easily described in Euclidean language, has the same Hausdorff dimension as topological dimension , and is fully defined without a need for recursion. These measurements are examples for classical Euclidian approaches.
A mathematical approach to spatial distribution and temporal succession in plant communities. Johnson, T.
So shape traits are key elements in many ecological and biological studies. Journel, and E. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. As model taxa we used six widespread species with varying complexity, belonging to the genera Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites.
Simulated fractals[ edit ] Fractal patterns have been modeled extensively, albeit within a range of scales rather than infinitely, owing to the practical limits of physical time and space.
Interactions between the fractal geometry of landscapes and allometric herbivory.