Moreover, these analyses have indicated that such gender differences seem to occur only on math achievement tests Reilly et al. Instruments We used an achievement test and a questionnaire to assess effects of the experimental manipulation.
Eccles et al. Abstract Television programs are a central part of children's everyday lives. A meta-analysis by Flore and Wichertsfor instance, found that girls who are reminded of typical gender stereotypes in math exhibit slightly lower math performance compared to girls who are not reminded of such stereotypes.The results provide important implications for policymakers and practitioners regarding gender stereotypes and the use of thin female characters. We therefore did not hypothesize specific effects on task values and feelings about math. Eccles et al. Statistical Analyses In order to estimate effects of the gender stereotypes in the television program, we computed multiple regression analyses for the different outcomes in Mplus 7. Additionally, children become increasingly aware of social gender roles and how behavior might reflect such roles for a review, see Leaper, In order to make it easier to interpret the results, we standardized all continuous predictors i. We explored effects on girls' task values in math and their feelings about math as open-ended research questions. In addition, there is some work on the effects of stereotypes on males using adult samples that also suggest that males are not much affected by stereotypes Walton and Cohen, ; Cheryan et al. In the control condition, participants watched an equally long, neutral summary of the first part of the video. The study employs Deaux and Lewis' four dimensions of female gender stereotypes: 1 physical appearance, 2 role behaviors, 3 occupations, and 4 traits. Data were collected in June and July by trained research assistants during school hours a maximum of one lesson for the pretest, a maximum of two lessons for the experiment and the posttest. A meta-analysis by Flore and Wicherts , for instance, found that girls who are reminded of typical gender stereotypes in math exhibit slightly lower math performance compared to girls who are not reminded of such stereotypes. Moreover, these analyses have indicated that such gender differences seem to occur only on math achievement tests Reilly et al. This abstract may be abridged.
In the control condition, participants watched a neutral summary of the first 14 min of the video. In the experimental condition, the program included a gender stereotyped segment in which two girls who were frustrated with math copied their math homework from a male classmate.
As a result of such processes, boys develop higher competence beliefs and values in male-typed domains such as math and math-intensive STEM domains than girls e. According to expectancy-value theory, such experiences might lead to the internalization of gender-role stereotypes, with the previously described consequences that girls disidentify with and devalue math, and boys particularly identify with and value math in the long run Eccles et al.
The 4-point Likert scale was used to avoid confounding response factors in scales containing a middle category Kaplan, ; Dubois and Burns, Television programs are one potential source of gender stereotypes for children.
To examine the effects of these stereotypes, we conducted a randomized study with a pretest—posttest design in which fifth graders watched this television program about math either with or without the segment in which these gender stereotypes were portrayed.
Furthermore, no effects of traditional gender stereotypes have been reported with respect to men's interest and belonging in computer science Cheryan et al.
Women also showed less interest in educational and vocational areas that are typically male-stereotyped but higher interest in typically female-stereotyped domains.