However, as transportation systems improved from the mid nineteenth century, the economy became more unified allowing companies to distribute standardised, branded goods at national level.
The business historian, Richard S. Finally you might consider that marketing has changed rapidly over this century and it continues to change. In a major review of the periodisation approach, Hollander et al.
The production orientation era For much of the industrial revolution goods were generally scarce and producers could sell pretty much all that they could produce, as long as people could afford to buy them.
A key question that has preoccupied researchers is whether it is possible to identify specific orientations or mindsets that inform key periods in marketing's evolution. The sales orientation era From the start of the twentieth century to the period following the Second World War although the development was interrupted by the wars competition grew and the focus of marketing turned to selling.
History of marketing ppt
This gave rise to a much broader mass marketing mindset. Minimal promotion and advertising , marketing communications limited to raising awareness of the product's existence Selling orientation[ edit ] The sales orientation, often characterised by door-to-door selling is thought to have begun during the Great Depression of the s and continues to this day. Trade and payment in money, goods and services has been around for many thousands of years. However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar - calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World. The physical market was characterised by transactional exchange, bartering systems were commonplace and the economy was characterised by local trading. Life, the Universe and Marketing from Rahul Agarwal Discovery of business has further evolved to include highly individualized messaging in the form of carefully placed ads on the websites and the distribution of relevant pop-ups on smartphones based on factors such as browsing history, location, age, previous buying history, and other personal data. He traced three distinct eras in Pillsbury's evolution:  Production-oriented era —s : characterised by a "focus on production processes" Sales-oriented era s—s : characterised by investment in research to develop new products and advertising to persuade markets of product benefits Marketing-oriented era s—present : characterised by a focus on the customer's latent and existing needs In addition, Keith hypothesised that a "marketing control era" was about to emerge. Wine jars, for example, were stamped with names, such as "Lassius" and "L. Tedlow , argues that any attempt to segment markets prior to was highly fragmented since the economy was characterised by small, regional suppliers who mostly sold goods on a local or regional basis. Until the nineteenth century, Western economies were characterised by small regional suppliers who sold goods on a local or regional basis. The only certainty is change. In the absence of a good understanding of marketing, organisations may still focus on production or sales. So marketers are surrounded by change. Some argue that marketing has been in existence whenever and wherever there have been buyers and sellers i. One technique was to have a window opening out onto the street from which customers could be served.
Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. This gave rise to a much broader mass marketing mindset.
They are also increasingly interested in ensuring that employees understand marketing, i. The world and marketing are changing.
based on 102 review