The initial imposition of colonial rule and boundaries itself disrupted intra-African networks of exchange, and the increasing presence of European merchants in the interior relegated many African traders further down the chain of intermediation between shippers and farmers Goerg ; Nwabughuogu Jerven, Morten.
Social mobility and colonial legacy in five African countries. Merchant capital and the roots of State power in Senegal, Moreover, the fertility of much of the land was relatively low or at least fragile, making it costly or difficult to pursue intensive cultivation, especially in the absence of animal manure.
Hundreds of princely statesstates ruled by monarchs in treaty of subsidiary alliance with Britain, were integrated into India and Pakistan. Events such as the recent election of Trump in the United States, or the UK voting in to leave the EU, are in a way related to this process of relative impoverishment of some social groups in the developed countries, to the extent that speeches calling for a reversal of globalization and a return to models of markets protected by states can now be perceived increasingly as a political option.
Chapter 4 tries to define the economic and political structures and trends within Africa on the eve of the European partition of the continent.
Today, secessionist tensions are more and more evident, with flashpoints on all continents. Miles, John.